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Recommendation for Treatment of Tetanus during Humanitarian Emergencies

Recommendation for Treatment of Tetanus during Humanitarian Emergencies

Background: Tetanus is an acute, toxin-mediated disease caused by Clostridium tetani. Under favourable anaerobic conditions, such as in dirty, necrotic wounds, this ubiquitous bacillus may produce tetanospasmin, an extremely potent neurotoxin. Tetanus toxin blocks inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, resulting in muscular stiffness and spasms that are typical of tetanus. The disease can affect any age group and case-fatality rates are high (10-80%) even where modern intensive care is available. There is no natural immunity against tetanus; protection can be provided by active immunization with tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine, (TT: formalininactivated tetanus toxin) or administration of an anti-tetanus antibody (tetanus-specific immunoglobulin, TIG).

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 Treatment of tetanus disease:

Immunotherapy: if available, administer human TIG (Tetanus Immunoglobulin) 500 units by intramuscular injection or intravenously (depending on the available preparation) as soon as possible; in addition, administer age-appropriate TT-containing vaccine, 0.5 cc by intramuscular injection at a separate site. [Tetanus disease does not induce immunity; patients without a history of primary TT vaccination should receive a second dose 1–2 months after the first dose and a third dose 6–12 months later.]



TAG:  Hualan Bio, Tetanus Vaccine, Human Tetanus Immunoglobulin, Specific Immunoglobulin, Tetanus Disease